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Malay (Bahasa Melayu) 

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Introduction

Selamat datang – Welcome

Malay, also known as Bahasa Melayu, is a member of the Malayo-Polynesian branch of the Austronesian language family. It is spoken by the native Malay people on both sides of the Straits of Malacca that separate Sumatra from the Malay Peninsula. Since the Malacca Straits have always been a busy sea route, travelers came into contact with the language of the Malay people and spread it throughout the Indonesian islands. As a result, Malay became the lingua franca of the Indonesian archipelago, and eventually the main reason why it was chosen as the national language of the Indonesian Republic in the 20th century.

Malaysia mapDuring the 19th and part of the 20th century, the language was exposed to different influences. In the Netherlands East Antilles, the influences came from Dutch and Javanese; in the British-controlled areas, the influences came from English and local Malay varieties. Because higher education was available only in Dutch or in English, neither variety of Malay developed its own technical vocabulary. After the independence of Indonesia and Malaysia in the 1950s, each country pursued its own course in developing social, political, technical, and scientific terminology necessary for meeting the demands of the 20th century. A joint Indonesian-Malaysian policy for the creation of such vocabulary was created only in the late 1970s. As a result, the main differences between Indonesian and Malay are more lexical than grammatical, although there are regional differences in pronunciation as well.

Status
Standard Malay is the official language of Malaysia. It is also one of the four official languages of Singapore (along with English, Mandarin, and Tamil).  It is also spoken in Indonesia, and Brunei, and is used as a working language in East Timor.  It is estimated that Malay is spoken by close to 18 million people worldwide (Ethnologue).

Malaysia
In Malaysia, the language is known as Bahasa Melayu or Bahasa Malaysia. Since 1968, Standard Malay is the official language of Malaysia along with English and Mandarin Chinese.  However, the language of wider communication is colloquial Malay (Ethnologue). As a vestige of colonization, English is still considered a prestige language among the educated classes. It continues to be used in the majority of institutions of higher education. However, Malay is officially the medium of scientific, administrative, legal and other official matters.

  • Brunei 
    Malay and English are the two co-official languages of Brunei. Malay is spoken by over half of the population. English is widely used, especially by the Chinese and Indian minorities, because of its importance as the language of international business.
  • Singapore
    In Singapore, Malay was historically the lingua franca among people who spoke different languages, but it has been replaced by English. Today, it retains the status of a national language. 15% of Singapore’s population speak Malay.
  • Indonesia
    Known as called Bahasa Indonesia, it is spoken by 23 million people as a first language and by 140 million people as a second language. It has become the lingua franca for its numerous ethnic groups who speak a wide variety of languages. In East Timor (a province of Indonesia from 1976 to 1999), Bahasa Indonesia is widely spoken, and recognized by its Constitution as a working language.

Dialects

Regional variation
There are two main dialect divisions characterized mainly by differences in pronunciation and, to a lesser extent, by differences in vocabulary:
  • The northern dialect, referred to as Malay, is spoken in MalaysiaSingapore and Brunei.
  • The southern dialect is spoken in Indonesia. It is further subdivided into western and eastern varieties which, in turn, have a number of regional dialects. Standard Indonesian is based on the formal variety of the language spoken in Jakarta, the capital of Indonesia.

 

Social registers
The language is characterized by significant differences between formal and informal registers.
The formal register is used in public speeches, formal writing, and in educational settings. It is characterized by a significant number of borrowings from Sanskrit, Arabic and other foreign languages. It is referred to as Standard Malay (Ethnologue).

The informal register is used in everyday conversations. It is characterized by a significant number of borrowings from local languages. It is referred to as colloquial, or informal, Malay (Ethnologue). There are few first-language speakers of Standard Malay, most people learn it as a second dialect.

Structure

Sound system

Vowels
Malay has six vowel phonemes, i.e., sounds that can differentiate word meaning.

Close
i
u
Mid
e
ə
o
Open
a
  • /ə / = a in about

 

Consonants
The consonant system of Malay is fairly simple. Syllables in native words do not have consonant clusters and typically consist of a Consonant + Vowel or Vowel + Vowel. Loanwords, on the other hand, frequently contain consonant clusters, e.g., struktur ‘structure’.

The table below shows the consonant phonemes of Malay. Consonants in parentheses occur exclusively in borrowed words.

Labio-dental
Stops voiceless
p
t
k
ʔ
voiced
b
d
g
Fricatives voiceless
(f)
s
(ʃ)
(x)
h
voiced
(v)
(z)
xx
Affricates voiceless
xxx
voiced
Nasals
m
n
ɲ
ŋ
Laterals
l
Trill
r
Approximants
w
.xxx
j
  • /ʔ/ = sound between syllables in uh-oh
  • /ʃ/ = sh in shop
  • /tʃ/ = ch in chop
  • /dʒ/ = j of job
  • /x/ has no equivalent in English
  • /ɲ/ = first n in canyon
  • /ŋ/ = ng in song

 

Stress
Stress does not distinguish word meaning since it regularly falls on the penultimate (next to the last) syllable in a word.

Grammar

 

Nouns

  • Nouns are not generally marked for gender, although there are some exceptions in the case of loanwords, e.g., putera ‘prince’, puteri ‘princess’ (from Sanskrit). If there is a need to distinguish gender, a word such as ‘male’ or ‘female’ can be used to elucidate, e.g., adik lelaki ‘male younger sibling’.
  • Classifiers may be inserted between numerals and count nouns, et.g., dua buah rumah ‘two (classifier) houses’. There are many classifiers, e.g., orang for human beings, buah for large man-made objects, etc.
  • Number is not marked, e.g, orang can refer to both a single person or to several people. If needed, plurality can be expressed lexically by words such as bəbərapa ‘some’, or səmua ‘all’, e.g., bəbərapa orang ‘some people’.  Reduplication can also be used to express plurality, e.g., buku-buku ‘books, many books’.
  • Demonstrative pronouns can be used to indicate definiteness, e.g., babi itu ‘the, that, those pigs’.
  • The numeral satu ‘one’ is abbreviated to se-. It can n be used to express indefinitness, e.g., sebuah rumah ‘a house’.

 

Pronouns
The language is rich in pronouns.

  • Personal pronouns are marked for person.
  • Most pronouns are marked for informality and formality. Saya and aku are the two major forms of the first person singular pronoun ‘I’. Saya is more formal, whereas aku is used informally with family and friends. There are three common forms of the second person pronoun ‘you': anda (formal), kamu (informal), and kalian ‘all’ (slightly informal plural form like ‘you all’.)
  • There is an inclusive 1st person plural pronoun, i.e., one that includes the addressee, and an exclusive 2st person pronoun, i.e., one that excludes the addressee, e.g., kita ‘you and me, you and us’, and kami ‘us, but not you’.
  • In all formal situations, personal names, kinship terms, or titles are used in place of 2nd person pronouns.
  • There are two demonstrative pronouns: ini ‘this, these’ is used with nouns proximal to the speaker, whereas itu ‘that, those is used with nouns that are distant from the speaker.

 

Verbs

  • Verbs are not marked for person or tense. These categories are inferred from context or expressed by adverbs and other time words.
  • There is a three-way aspect distinction between action completed, action begun but not completed, and action not completed. These distinctions are represented by special markers.
  • Voice and transitivity are marked by affixes.
  • Mood is expressed by adverbs or other auxiliary words.

 

Word order
Neutral word order in Malay is Subject-Verb-Object. However, other word orders are possible, depending on emphasis and style. For instance, words constituting the focus of a sentence, i.e., parts of the sentence that contain the most important, or new information, usually appear in initial position. For example, in the sentence Saya pergi ke pasar kemarin ‘I went to the market yesterday’ the focus is on the subject. But in the sentence Ke pasar saya pergi, kemarin ‘To the market I went yesterday’ the focus is on where I went yesterday. Adjectives, demonstrative pronouns, and possessive pronouns follow the noun they modify. Classifiers normally precede nouns.

Vocabulary

Words are mostly formed by derivation, using prefixes, infixes, and suffixes, e.g., raja ‘king’,  kerajaan ‘kingdom’. Reduplication is also very common, e.g., langit ‘sky’, langit-langit ‘ceiling’. Word can also be formed by compounding, e.g., kereta ‘car’ + api ‘fire’ = kereta api ‘train’ (possibly a calque from Chinese). There are numerous borrowings from ArabicSanskritPortuguese, DutchChinese dialects, and more recently from English. Here are some examples of loanwords in Malay:

Malay

Source of borrowing

bendera Portuguese bandeira ‘flag’
bihun Hokkien (Minbi-hun ‘rice vermicelli’
dunia Arabic dunya ‘world’
buku Dutch boek ‘book’
guru Sanskit guru ‘teacher’
Khamis Arabic al-khamis ‘Thursday’
sains English ‘science’
wanita ‘woman’ from Spanish Juanita

 

Below are some common words and phrases in Malay.

Greetings (formal) Selamat sejahtera
Goodbye (safe journey) Selamat jalan
Thank you Terima kasih
Please (request) Minta
I apologize Maaf
Yes Ya
No Tidak
Man Orang
Woman Wanita

The Malay numerals 1-10 are given below.

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
satu
dua
tiga
empat
lima
enam
tujuh
delapan
sembilan
sepuluh

Writing

The earliest known inscriptions in Malay found on the island of Sumatra date back to 683 AD. They were written in a Pallava script, a variant of the Brāhmīscript, and contained accounts of military expeditions and laws. When Islam arrived in southeast Asia during the 14th century, a modified form of the Arabic script known as the Jawi script was adopted for writing Malay. The script was used until the first quarter of the 20th century in Indonesia, and until the 1950s in Malaysia. The Jawi script is still used today as one of two official scripts in Brunei, and in Malaysia, Indonesia and Singapore, particularly in religious contexts.

Although the representations of speech sounds are now largely identical in the Indonesian and Malay varieties, a number of minor spelling differences remain, usually reflecting the romanization practices used in British and Dutch colonies.

Take a look at Article 1 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights in Malay.

Semua manusia dilahirkan bebas dan samarata dari segi kemuliaan dan hak-hak. Mereka mempunyai pemikiran dan perasaan hati dan hendaklah bertindak di antara satu sama lain dengan semangat persaudaraan.

Did You Know?

Malay words in English

English word
from Malay
amok amuk ‘attacking furiously’
bamboo probably from samambu
batik probably from samambu
camphor kapur ‘camphor tree’
cockatoo kakatua, name of the bird
gecko gekoq, possibly imitative of the noise made by the lizard
gong gong, probably imitative of its sound
junk jong ‘ship, large boat’
ketchup kichap ‘brine of fish’ (from a Chinese Amoy dialect)
orangutan orang utan, literally ‘man of the woods,’ from orang ‘man’ + utan ‘forest, wild’
paddy padi ‘rice in the straw, ‘ i.e., ground where rice is grown
rattan rotan, from raut ‘to trim, strip’
sarong sarung ‘sheath, covering’

 

Difficulty

Language Difficulty
questionHow difficult is it to learn Malay?
Malay is more difficult than Category I languages, requiring 36 weeks of instruction to reach ILR level 3 in speaking.

8 Responses to Malay (Bahasa Melayu)

  1. bahroni rofiqul

    Im an Indonesian.
    In early,Bahasa Melayu isn’t our biggest language in the Indonesian Archipelago. There are Javanese and Sundanese, but both are two difficult to be a national language. Why? whereas both of them have many speakers in the Netherlands East Indies (now : Indonesia.
    Javanese and Sundanese isn’t like any language in this world. They have differences in structure for older and younger people. How children speak up with their friend, totally it would be different when they speak to the older, such as : a stranger,parent, teacher, etc. For example : eat , in Javanese there are four forms ; mangan/madhang (for the younger), maem(for younger too, but in respect form) and dhahar (for the older and stranger that we don’t know closely. You could imagine that how difficult both are if they bcomee a national language for every people in a country with more than 300 ethnics and more than 300 mother languages(Indonesia) .
    Finally,realized that blessings,our ancestors decided to choose the Melayu Riau as a national language,that we called Bahasa Indonesia. It easier than Jananese/Sundanese or other mother-languages.Even though this one isn’t one of majority language in Indonesian Archipelago. Today, at least an Indonesian should learn three languanges: their mother language,Bahasa Indonesia as a National Language and English as an international language. Although in some cases,many indonesians have an “englishphobia”. They feel comfort with two other language.
    thank a lot.

    Saya merasa bangga dengan Bahasa Indonesia yang dapat menyatukan semua suku bangsa di indonesia tanpa terkecuali. Sehingga orang dari Papua bisa dengan mudah berbicara dengan yang dari Padang, orang dari Bali bisa paham apa maksud percakapan orang Bugis.

     
    • Irene Thompson

      Thank you for your comment. We will make sure that we incorporate some of the information you have given us in our website. However, Javanese is not unique in having different registers associated with age, gender, social status, etc. But your point is well taken — these are very important features of the language.

       
  2. bahroni rofiqul

    im a javanese too.
    just for your information guys,
    in javanese, there are three main forms sentences. We called “Unggah-Ungguh Basa” (a politeness speaking).
    yhe First : Ngoko Form, we use this for an informally occasion with a friend that same age with us or we know well. Or when we speak with the youger.

    ex: Dina is eating nasi goreng (Dina sedang makan nasi goreng)
    so in Ngoko form : Dina lagi mangan sega goreng.

    means that we knew Dina well/closely as a friend. So we dont need use respect forms for her.Or Dina is younger than us.

    The second we called Krama Lugu Form.This form will be used when we speak with a friend that we don’t know well/closely. It also use for the younger that we need to respect such as : our boss, someone who help us etc.

    so in Krama Lugu Form: Dina nembe madhang.

    means that we dont knew Dina as soulmate,just a friend. Or Dina are younger than us,but we need to respect with her for any reason.

    and The last, Krama Inggil Form (inggil means atas in Bahasa or High in English). We use it in a form situation, or when we meet strangers, or when we speak to older.

    so Krama Inggil Form : Bu Dina nembe dhahar.

    Why we use ” Bu”, because this is a high respect form. Bu means Mrs.

    this example means that Dina is older than us. Or Dina is a stranger. Totally we dont know her, but just a name.

    Heeem, you can say, how a difficult language! when you study Javanese you will feel that you study three languages in same time (yeah because there are three form)

    other example :
    in Bahasa Indonesia : kamu
    in English : you

    in Javanese : (okay, wait ..there are three form which you must know when, who, where you talk about)

    in Ngoko : kowe, awakmu
    in Krama Lugu : sampean
    in Krama Inggil : Panjenengan

    yeah, that’s my mother language.and until today our society still use three of them.

     
    • Irene Thompson

      Thank you for your comment. We will make sure to use the information when we revise the Javanese page.

       
  3. Jasmani

    By the way the word “batik” is defintely not from “semambu”; it is probably from the ready Malay(and Javanese) word, “batik”. This word could have evolved from “bertitik”, meaning to make dots (with wax.

     
  4. Jasmani

    By the way the word “batik” is defintely not from “semambu”; it is probably from the ready Malay(and Javanese) word, “batik”. This word could have evolved from “bertitik”, meaning to make dots (with wax).

     
    • Irene Thompson

      The etymological dictionary states “1880, from Dutch, from Malay mbatik, said to be from amba “to write” + titik “dot, point.” But your explanation also sounds plausible. Can you give me your source?

       
  5. Jasmani

    I don’t have any academic source to back up my postulation.

    But “mbatik” sounds too Javanese.

    In making batik, the canting is used. “Canting” sounds too similar to the Malay word “conteng” i.e. to doodle. So to “menconteng” is to write.

     

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