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The Berber languages are a group of 26 closely related languages that constitute a branch of the Afro-Asiatic language family. They are spoken by 14 to 25 million people in Northern Africa throughout the Mediterranean coast, the Sahara desert and Sahel, an area which used to be dominated by Berbers before the arrival of the Arabs. Today, there are large groups of Berber-speaking … Full article

Indo-European is a family of languages that first spread throughout Europe and many parts of South Asia, and later to every corner of the globe as a result of colonization. The term Indo-European is essentially geographical since it refers to the easternmost extension of the family from the Indian subcontinent to its westernmost reach in Europe. The family includes …

Turkish (Türkçe), the westernmost of the Turkic languages, belongs to the Turkic branch of the Altaic language family. It has the largest number of speakers of all Turkic languages.There is a significant degree of mutual intelligibility between Turkish and other Oghuz languages such as Azerbaijani,Turkmen, and Qashqai. Turkish is the official language of Turkey where it is spoken by 67 million people as a first and by another 350,000 people …

The original official languages of the UN were English, Chinese, French, and Russian, the languages of the permanent members of the UN Security Council. The choice was largely political. English was widely used as an international language, as it was the dominant language of the United States, a superpower. Chinese was the language of a major power as well as the language with the greatest number of speakers. …

All Romance languages are descendants of Vulgar Latin dialects spoken by the common people in the Roman Empire. Spread of the Romance languages occurred in two main stages: The first stage occurred in 240-100 BC, owing to the expansion of the Roman Empire over a good part of Europe, England, Northern Africa and portions of the Middle East. After the breakup of the Roman …

  Greek (Eλληνικά), the language of one of the major civilizations and one of the greatest literatures of the world, forms its own independent branch of the Indo-European language family and has no close living relatives. Of all the living Indo-European languages, it is most closely related to Armenian. It has been spoken in the southern Balkans since the early part of the second millennium BC and …

Lithuanian (lietuvių kalba) belongs to the Baltic branch of the Indo-European language family. It is spoken in Lithuania by 2.8 million people. Besides Lithuania, it is spoken in Latvia, Estonia, Poland, Canada, and the US. The worldwide population of Lithuanian speakers is estimated at around 3 million (Ethnologue). The closest relative of Lithuanian is Latvian, but the two languages are not mutually intelligible. Both …

Marathi (also known as Maharashtri) is a member of the Indo-Aryan branch of the Indo-European language family. It is closely related to Hindi and Punjabi. It is spoken as a first language by 72 million people and by another 3 million people as a second language in India, primarily in the state of Maharashtra. Marathi is the fourth largest language of India. Outside of India it …

Sanskrit, meaning ‘perfected’ or ‘refined’, is one of the oldest, if not the oldest, of of all attested human languages. It belongs to the Indo-Aryan branch of the Indo-European family. The oldest form of Sanskrit is Vedic Sanskrit that dates back to the 2nd millennium BCE. Known as ‘the mother of all languages,’ Sanskrit is the dominant classical language of the Indian subcontinent and one of …

Aramaic (ארמית Arāmît, Ārāmāyâ), a member of the Semitic branch of the Afro-Asiatic language family, has a remarkable 3,000-year history. It was spoken by Aramaeans, an ancient semi-nomadic people who had lived in upper Mesopotamia. This area is now, occupied by Iraq, eastern Syria, and southeastern Turkey. Hebrew is closely related to Aramaic. Aramaic is thought to have first appeared among the Aramaeans in the …

German (Deutsch) belongs to the Western group of the Germanic branch of the Indo-European language family. It is one of the world’s major languages spoken by an estimated 95 million native and 28 million second-language speakers in some 40 countries around the world (Ethnologue). German diverged from other Germanic languages by a sound change called the High German Consonant Shift, also known as the Second German …

Catalan, also known as Catala, Catalan-Valencian-Balear, Catalonian, belongs to the Romance branch of the Indo-European language family. It is spoken by 6.9 million people in Spain with a total world population of 7.2 million people. In addition, there are 5 million second-language speakers of Catalan. In Spain Catalan is spoken in the Barcelona area, Catalonia, Valencia provinces, Balearic Islands, Carche region, and Murcia Province. …

Tigrinya (Tigrinya, Tigray, Tigriññā, ትግርኛ) is a member of the Semitic branch of the Afro-Asiatic language family. It is closely related to Amharic,Tigré and Ge’ez, an extinct language that is still used in religious practice. It is distantly related to Arabic and Hebrew. Ethiopia According to the 2007 census, Tigrigna is spoken by 4.3 million people in Ethiopia, 2.8 million of whom are monolingual speakers of the language. It is …

Kannada (ಕನ್ನಡ), also known as Kanarese, or Canarese, belongs to the Southern branch of the Dravidian language family. It is spoken as a first language by 38 million people and as a second language by another 9 million people in southern India, primarily in the state of Karnataka. It is also spoken in the neighboring states of Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, and Maharashtra. It is estimated that world-wide …

Slovak (Slovenský jazyk), also called Slovakian, belongs to the West Slavic group of the Slavic branch of the Indo-European language family. It is spoken by  4.75 million people in Slovakia. There are also expatriate Slovak communities in Canada, Hungary, Poland, Romania, Serbia and Montenegro, Ukraine, and USA.The total number of Slovak speakers worldwide is 5.2 million (Ethnologue). Slovak is close to Czech, and Slovak speakers in the …