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Turkish (Türkçe), the westernmost of the Turkic languages, belongs to the Turkic branch of the Altaic language family. It has the largest number of speakers of all Turkic languages.There is a significant degree of mutual intelligibility between Turkish and other Oghuz languages such as Azerbaijani,Turkmen, and Qashqai. Turkish is the official language of Turkey where it is spoken by 67 million people as a first and by another 350,000 people … Full article

Bulgarian (Бългapcки eзик) belongs to the South Slavic group of the Slavic Branch of the Indo-European language family. It is spoken in Bulgaria by 5.7  million people in Bulgaria. It is also spoken in Canada, Greece, Hungary, Israel, Moldova, Romania, Serbia and Montenegro, Turkey, Ukraine, and the U.S. Ethnologue estimates that the total number of speakers of Bulgarian worldwide is 6.8 million. The history of the Bulgarian …

Amharic (amarəñña, አማርኛ), also known as Abyssinian, Amarigna, Amarinya, Amhara, Ethiopian, belongs to the Semitic branch of the Afro-Asiatic language family. Amharic has close to 22 million first-language speakers and 4 million second-language speakers worldwide, of which slightly over 21.6 million live in Ethiopia (Ethnologue). It is related to Ge’ez, a liturgical language of the Ethiopian Orthodox Church. Amharic has been the language …

Lithuanian (lietuvių kalba) belongs to the Baltic branch of the Indo-European language family. It is spoken in Lithuania by 2.8 million people. Besides Lithuania, it is spoken in Latvia, Estonia, Poland, Canada, and the US. The worldwide population of Lithuanian speakers is estimated at around 3 million (Ethnologue). The closest relative of Lithuanian is Latvian, but the two languages are not mutually intelligible. Both …

Ilocano, also known as Ilokano and Iloko, is a member of the Malayo-Polynesian branch of the Austronesian language family. It is the third largest language of the Philippines, after Tagalog and English. The name Ilocano come from i– ‘from’ +looc ‘bay’ + –ano Spanish ‘native of,’ thus ‘people of the bay’. Ilocano is spoken as a first language by some 7 million people, primarily in Northern Luzon, La Union and Ilocos provinces, Cagayan Valley, Babuyan, Mindoro, …

Hebrew (‘Ivrit, עִבְרִית ), or ‘Ivrit, is a member of the Semitic branch of the Afro-Asiatic language family. It is the language of the Hebrew Bible and of the Old Testament of the Christians. The core of the Hebrew Bible, the Torah, traditionally believed to have been first recorded in the time of Moses 3,300 years ago, is written in Classical Hebrew. Hebrew began to die out as a spoken language …

Afrikaans, also known as the Cape Dutch, belongs to the west Germanic branch of the Indo-European language family. It is spoken by 6.9 million people as a first and by 10.3 million people as a second language in South Africa. Afrikaans is also spoken in Botswana, Lesotho, Malawi, Namibia, Swaziland and Zambia. It is estimated that the total number of first …

The Baltic branch of the Indo-European language family consists of a group of related languages that were spoken mainly in areas to the east and southeast of the Baltic Sea in Northern Europe. All Baltic languages are thought to have evolved from a common ancestral Proto-Baltic which itself is thought to have split from a common Proto-Balto-Slavic. The Baltic languages are of particular …

Cushitic languages form a branch of the Afro-Asiatic language family. They are spoken in Ethiopia, Eritrea, Somalia, Kenya, and Djibouti — countries located in the Horn of Africa. The dominant Cushitic languages, both in terms of number of speakers and geographical extension are Oromo, with about 24 million speakers in Ethiopia and Kenya; Somali, with 12.6 million speakers in Somalia, Ethiopia, and Djibouti; Sidamo with 1.9 million speakers in Ethiopia; Afar with about 1.4 million speakers in Eritrea; and Bedawi with about …

The Ibero-Caucasian language family is one of the several language families spoken in the Caucasus Mountains, a narrow land bridge between the Black and the Caspian seas, home to one of the highest concentrations of languages in the world. Besides languages from other language families (Armenian, Azerbaijani, Russian) brought by settlers and invaders over the past three millennia, there are 39 indigenous languages most of them have …

Language isolates are languages that have no known historical or linguistic relationship to any other languages. Language isolates can be found in all parts of the world. In some cases, languages are classified as isolates because we know so little about them that we are unable to establish a family relationship, as in the case of some languages of …

Semitic languages constitute a the most populous branch of the Afro-Asiatic language family. They are spoken by more than 500 million people across the Middle East, North Africa, and the Horn of Africa. They are believed to have evolved from a hypothetical common ancestor called *Proto-Semitic whose place of origin is still disputed: Africa, Arabian Peninsula, and Mesopotamia are the most probable locations. The Semitic branch can be …

Punjabi (also known as Pañjābī) is a member of the Indo-Aryan branch of the Indo-European language family. Eastern Punjabi is spoken as a first language primarily in the state of Punjab of India by 28.2  million people (Ethnologue). Western Punjabi (also known as Lahnda) is spoken by 60.6 million people in the Punjab province of Pakistan (Ethnologue). There are also speakers of these dialects in a number …

Malay, also known as Bahasa Melayu, is a member of the Malayo-Polynesian branch of the Austronesian language family. It is spoken by the native Malay people on both sides of the Straits of Malacca that separate Sumatra from the Malay Peninsula. Since the Malacca Straits have always been a busy sea route, travelers came into contact with the language of the Malay people and spread it throughout the Indonesian …

Maithili, also known as Maitli, Maitili, Methli,Tirahutia, Bihari, Tirhuti, and Tirhutia, is a member of the Indo-Aryan branch of the Indo-European language family. Its closest relatives are Magahi and Bhojpuri. Maithili is spoken in India, primarily in the state of Bihar, as well as in Nepal. The term Maithili comes from Mithila, an independent Indian state in ancient times. Relatively little is known about the history and origin of …