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Yiddish (ייִדיש) belongs to the Western group of the Germanic branch of the Indo-European language familyIt is likely that the language developed in central Europe from Middle High German varieties in the 11th-13th centuries AD and has been spoken by the Ashkenazi Jews of Central and Eastern Europe and their descendants around the world ever since then. The name yidish in Yiddish means ‘Jewish.’ Although Yiddish developed from a dialect of German, the two languages are not mutually comprehensible for a variety of reasons: (1) Yiddish grammar is quite different from that of German as a result of contact with Slavic languages; (2) Yiddish is culturally distinct from German; (3) Yiddish and German have not shared the same territory for many centuries.


Today, Eastern Yiddish is spoken in a number of countries of the Jewish diaspora by some 860,000 people. The figures below taken from Ethnologue is based on outdated data and, most probably does not reflect the large number of East European Jews who emigrated to Israel in the past several decades.

Belarus 231,000 1991
Israel 215,000 1986
Argentina 200,000 ?
US 161,000 2013
Belgium 20,000 ?
Canada 16,300 2011
Latvia 8,000 ?
Poland 5,840 2002
Romania 950 2003


Among European Jews Yiddish contended with Modern Hebrew as a literary language. In the years before the Holocaust, there were probably 10-11 million Yiddish speakers worldwide. As a result of the Holocaust, cultural assimilation in America and in the USSR, and shift to Hebrew in Israel, today there an estimated 3 million speakers left, most of whom no longer use Yiddish as their primary language. It remains the everyday language only in a few Orthodox and Hassidic communities. In recent years, as a result of renewed interest in Ashkenazi culture, Yiddish language courses are being taught in universities and Jewish cultural organizations. There are hundreds of newspapers, magazines, radio programs, and websites in Yiddish worldwide.  In the United States, most Yiddish speakers tended not to pass the language to their children who assimilated and spoke English, with the possible exception of some Orthodox Jewish communities, especially in Brooklyn.

Click on the MLA Interactive Language Map to find out where Yiddish is spoken in the U.S.


Yiddish has two main branches: Eastern and Western. Most references to the language apply to Eastern Yiddish.

Eastern Yiddish

  • Eastern Yiddish has several regional varieties. Speakers who grew up in the United States often speak a language that represents a mixture of various Eastern Yiddish dialects. These dialects differ from one another in vocabulary and grammar, but most significantly in the pronunciation of certain vowels, e.g., ‘dove’ is toyb in Northeastern, toub in Mideastern, and tub in Southeastern varieties.
  • Northeastern, or Lithuanian, spoken in the Baltic region, Belarus, and adjacent areas;
  • Mideastern, or Polish, spoken in Poland and other areas of Central Europe;
  • Southeastern, or Ukrainian, spoken in Ukraine and the Balkans.
  • Western Yiddish was formerly spoken in Germany, Holland, France, Switzerland, and Hungary, but had largely become extinct through assimilation and the Holocaust. Unlike Eastern Yiddish, it was not influenced by Slavic languages.Because it has never been the official language of a sovereign state, there is no official dialect of Yiddish. Since the end of the 19th century, however, a de facto literary dialect called Standard Yiddish has evolved, based largely on the grammar of Southeastern and the pronunciation of Northeastern Yiddish. It is the dialect that is usually taught in schools and used in most modern publications, even though it does not exactly represents anyone’s native speech.



Sound system

The sound system of Yiddish is very similar to that of Standard German. Some of the main differences between the two languages are listed below:

long /a:/, as in Fater ‘father’ /oas in foter ‘father’
long /o:/ /oy/
long /e:/ /ey/
umlaut /ö/, as in schön ‘beautiful’ /ey/, as in sheyn
umlaut /ü/, as in Brüder ‘brothers’ /i/, as in brider
/au/, as in kaufen ‘to buy’ /oy/, as in koyfn
/oi/, as in Deutsch ‘German’ /ay/, as in daytsh
/pf/, as in Pferd ‘horse’ /f, as in ferd
no assimilation regressive voicing assimilation, e.g., zogt ‘says’ is pronounced as /zokt/
final devoicing, e.g., Brod ‘bread’ is pronounced with a final /t/. no devoicing, e.g., Brod ‘bread’ is pronounced with a final /d/.
no syllabic consonants syllabic /m, n, l/, e.g., koyfn ‘to buy’
uvular trilled /r/ either uvular or alveolar trilled /r/
/p, t, k/ are aspirated /p, t, kare not aspirated (as in Slavic languages)
/t, d, n/ are alveolar /t, d, n/ are dental (as in Slavic languages)



The position of stress varies according to the origin of the word. For example, stress in words of Germanic origin normally falls on the first syllable of the root, while stress in words of Slavic and Semitic origin falls usually falls on the penultimate syllable.


Yiddish and German share a number of similar grammatical structures but there are also significant differences between the two languages.


Yiddish nouns are marked for the following categories:

  • There are three genders: masculine, feminine, neuter. For the most part, gender is not predictable from the form of the noun and has to be memorized.
  • There are two numbers: singular, and plural. Plural forms of Germanic nouns are -n or -s, plural forms of Hebrew nouns are –im or –es.
  • There are three cases: nominativeaccusative, and dative. Nouns are not inflected for case, but definite articles, demonstratives, and some adjectives are.



  • Yiddish verbs are inflected for person and number only in the present tense.
  • Yiddish has no simple past tense which is formed by the auxiliary verb ‘to have’ plus the past participle, e.g., Ikh hob gezungen ‘I sang, I have sung.’


Word order

Word order in Yiddish sentences is the same as the word order in German. It is best described in terms of the position of the verb in Yiddish clauses. It occupies final position in subordinate clauses, and first or second position in main clauses. The position of all other sentence constituents is relatively free.


Yiddish and German share a large proportion of their vocabularies. In addition, Yiddish has borrowed a large number of Hebrew, and to a lesser extent, Aramaic words, including religious, scholarly, and everyday items. Later, when most European Jews moved eastward, Yiddish borrowed words from Slavic languages. Yiddish/Slavic bilingualism resulted in widespread Slavic influences on Yiddish at every level.

Hello (daily greeting) When meeting a person for the first time. Gut-morgn, Sholom-aleykhem
Good bye Gutn tog
Please Zay azoy gut
Thank you A dank
Excuse me, I am sorry Zayt moykhl
Yes Ye
No Neyn
Man Mentsh
Woman Froy


Below are the Yiddish numerals 1-10 in Latin and Hebrew script. The numerals were borrowed from German.

1 eyns מען
2 tswei צוויי
3 dray דרייַ
4 fier פיר
5 finfef
6 zeks
7 zibn זיבן
8 ahet אַכט
9 nayn נייַן
10 tsen עלף


Yiddish is written with the 22-letter square Hebrew alphabet, although the Latin alphabet is sometimes used for electronic communications. The Hebrew alphabet originally had letters for consonants only, but it was later adapted to indicate vowels. Words of Aramaic and Hebrew origin are written using the traditional orthographies of the source languages. Orthography has varied from place to place, and has changed over time. A standard orthography promulgated by the YIVO Institute for Jewish Research has only recently gained general acceptance.

Click here to see the modern Yiddish alphabet.

Take a look at Article 1 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights in Yiddish and Standard German for comparison. .

Yiddish in Hebrew square script

Yiddish Hebrew script

Yiddish in transliteration

Yeder mentsh vert geboyrn fray un glaykh in koved un rekht. Yeder vert bashonkn mit farshtand un gevisn; yeder zol zikh firn mit a tsveytn in a gemit fun brudershaft.


Alle Menschen sind frei und gleich an Würde und Rechten geboren. Sie sind mit Vernunft und Gewissen begabt und sollen einander im Geist der Brüderlichkeit begegnen.

All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood.

Did You Know?

Yiddish has had a noticeable influence on American English with many Yiddish words and phrases having worked their way into everyday speech. Among them are these familiar words:

bagel kibosh lox schlock shlep shtick
blintz klutz mishmash schmaltz shmuck schmooze
chutzpah kosher nosh shmo shnoz tchotchke
kibbitz kvetch nudnik shlemiel spiel tush


Some borrowings are no longer perceived as Yiddish words, e.g., glitch (from Yiddish glitsh ‘a slip’) and maven (from Yiddish meyvn ‘one who understands’). A number of Yiddish idiomatic constructions have become part of mainstream American English, for example, I don’t know from … (from Yiddish Ikh veys nit fun… ). The pejorative shm-reduplication, e.g., artsy-shmartsy, is now part of everyday American English.


Language Difficulty
questionHow difficult is it to learn Yiddish? There is no data on the difficulty of Yiddish for speakers of English.

7 Responses to Yiddish

  1. Steve Bell

    Interesting. I think I see one small error. The Hebrew text for the numbers is reversed. Eyns (one) is accompanied by the Hebrew script for tseyn (ten). “Neyn” in Hebrew script appears opposite the Roman-script for tswei (2) and so on.

    This I guess was because the Hebrew-script list originally read right-to-left and was pasted into the table directly.

    If I’m right, please correct it.

    • Irene Thompson

      For the moment, we took the Hebrew script for the numerals out while we check it out. Thank you for your comment.

    • Irene Thompson

      We fixed it. Thanks for your input.

  2. John L

    Unfortunately, there are still some errors in the Hebraic text for the numbers. The Hebraic letters for 1 read “men;” it should be spelled «אײנס». The text for 10 reads “elf” (which is actually 11) and should be «צען».

    Also, as far as I know, Yiddish speakers use the Hebrew welcome «ברוך־הבא» (borekh hobo) rather than the Germanic “Willkommen,” but this might be dialectical.

  3. Aryeh Moshen

    “Lithuanian” Yiddish does not have a neuter, only male and female and many words are unique to either Lithuanian or non-Lithuanian versions.

    There is a shift of accents in Southern Poland and the Ukraine, called Galicianer. The area of Poland North East of the Bug has a blend of Lithuanian and Polish Yiddish.

    The number of loan words in modern Yiddish makes it difficult for Anglophones, Latin Americans, and Israelis to understand each other (unless they speak the other local language).

    Many words of Hebrew origin are pronounced with the accent on the first Syllable (e.g. Sholom, Shabbos) but only if a real Yiddish word, Modern Hebrew loan words (Misrad, Menahel, Chaver) keep their Hebrew accent and are usually pronounced with Sephardic accent.

  4. Aryeh Moshen

    the above should have read “some words” instead of “many words” there are not many words that differ.


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